Thomas Mitchell, the surveyor who served under Lord Wellington named many of the streets after Peninsula War veterans, Wagga Wagga has a temperate climate with hot dry summers and cool to cold winters. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side.
In March , the population of New South Wales was 7. Just under two-thirds of the population,4. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at th meridian east in , in addition, the colony also included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island.
During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40, to 60, years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated , Aboriginal people in the region.
The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales.
After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria.
CWN-6 Dubbo began transmission on 1 December , also owned by CTS, they became the first station to completely relay another stations programming, although some station identification, such as test patterns, remained separate. In , the stations acquired access to the Postmaster-Generals microwave link, allowing viewers to see national news programs, a minute documentary on the National Rodeo Titles, called Goin Down The Road, won the station the Outstanding Contribution by a Regional Station Logie Award in Local programming in the s included Focus, Rural Roundup, Early Shift, Weekend Report, Time to Live, Around The Schools, local sports coverage, especially of tennis and rugby, former a major part of the schedule in the late s and early s.
Local programming and staff levels were reduced - morale at the time was reported to be at an all time low, programming schedules began to resemble those of affiliation partner Seven, with new facilities built in Wollongong and Canberra in preparation for the expansion in coverage area.
The introduction of the two new stations into Orange was delayed by problems, and did not start in the area until later in the year. In , the Wagga Wagga and Orange licenses were merged into the one license, as of April , both bulletins are pre-recorded.
In the Wollongong and Canberra regional markets, short two-minute updates are presented on by rotating news presenters with weather forecasts from Daniel Gibson, Madelaine Collignon, since August , production of Prime7 News for the Orange and Wagga Wagga markets moved to Prime7s Canberra headquarters. On that same day, a news studio was introduced for both bulletins. The licence, issued to a company named Amalgamated Television Services and it began broadcasting on 2 December ATN-7 is the home of the national level Seven News bulletins, the station opened in with principal offices and studios located at Mobbs Lane, Epping.
The initial black and white cameras and other equipment was supplied by the Marconi Company of England, conversion to PAL colour occurred on 1 March Later in the mids, the American Broadcasting Company asked ATN staff to develop aerofoil-designed cameras suitable for Formula One cars, comprising 3, square metres, viewers and tourists can see programs being broadcast from the street level studio.
The network claims that the Martin Place facilities are one of the most technologically advanced digital television centres in the world and this meant that guests could watch outside the studio as the eliminations were being carried out live. News updates for Sydney are presented throughout the afternoon and the evenings, with updates during the night being shown nationally, they can be seen on Seven, 7TWO.
The licence, issued to a company named Television Corporation Ltd headed by Sir Frank Packer, was one of the first four licences to be issued for commercial stations in Australia. Test broadcasts, initially consisting of a test slide and later documentaries, the first words spoken on the station were by John Godson, who introduced the station audio-only, shortly before the first program, This Is Television, was introduced by Bruce Gyngell.
As Godsons voice only was heard, Gyngell is regarded as the first person to appear on Australian television, original footage of Gyngells opening address is not believed to exist, with the oft-screened opening footage being re-created in for archival purposes.
Other early programming included the variety music program Bandstand which was launched by Brian Henderson and it lasted for 14 years on the station and launched the careers of many Australian performers. These stations formed the basis of what is now the Nine Network, although only the Sydney, on Sir Frank Packers death in ownership of Nine Network passed to his younger son Kerry Packer.
Perth was not included due to Bond selling it to Sunraysia Television before Packer buying back the company, in , Packers print operations and the Nine Network were merged into one new company, Publishing and Broadcasting Limited. On 1 October , TCN-9 performed the first on-air trial of broadcasting in the southern hemisphere. Sports news is presented by Cameron Williams on Sunday to Thursday nights, amber Sherlock presents the weather on weekdays.
Deborah Knight, Leila McKinnon and Wendy Kingston are the regular fill-in presenters, Brian Henderson was Nines Sydney news presenter for a record 45 years - including 38 years presenting on weeknights. Retiring in November , Henderson was succeeded as presenter by Jim Waley. The turning point came in with the premiere of the soap opera series Number 96 which immediately lifted TENs overall profile.
The current anchor for the 5pm Sydney news on weeknights is Sandra Sully, however a decline set in from , when the station, along with ATV in Melbourne, was bought by Frank Lowys Westfield Group. In , falling ratings and revenue prompted a major relaunch by American TV executive Bob Shanks, the station were rebranded as 10 TV Australia in , however this did little to help Tens fortunes with the network soon going into receivership.
The network began to be turned around in under the control of Gary Rice and this logo continues to this day. In , Westpac Bank bought Ten out of receivership and later sold the network to a consortium headed by Canadian group CanWest.
In , The network was managed in receivership and it was in period that it sold its North Ryde studios. TEN began a slow and steady recovery, to the point where now, as the station in the network. TENs broadcast facilities have been in the city suburb of Pyrmont since These studios feature an open plan newsroom and news-set where all Tens national and local Sydney news bulletins are produced. This facility is also the head office and broadcasts the network signal to other cities.
The North Ryde complex, which was used by Global Television in recent years, was demolished in September Most series are produced on location or at external studios by external companies, Ten Eyewitness News Sydney is presented by Sandra Sully with sport presenter Matt Burke, weather presenter Tim Bailey and traffic reporter Vic Lorusso. Colour television was introduced at the time as the rest of the country. The station was a prominent broadcaster of sporting events including Tennis.
The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of plains, warm to hot climate. This combination has allowed the Riverina to develop one of the most productive.
In the 20th century, the development of irrigation areas in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys has led to the introduction of crops such as rice. The Riverina has strong ties to Victoria, and the region was the source of much of the impetus behind the federation of Australian colonies.
Major population and service centres in the Riverina include the cities of Wagga Wagga, Albury, Albury and Wagga Wagga are home to campuses of Charles Sturt University, the only local provider of higher education for the region. Wagga Wagga is home to two major Australian Defence Force establishments, the northern boundary beyond the Riverina is determined by the Lachlan River catchment area and is referred to as the Central West. Along the Murray to the south, the Riverina borders the state of Victoria, West of the confluence of the Murray and Murrumbidgee is the beginning of the more arid Far West region.
In general, the Riverina is a plain formed by deposition carried from the Great Dividing Range by streams between 30, and 15, years ago. The terrain includes rolling hills to the east but then becomes flatter to the west with most of that plain reaching less than metres above sea level, the western Riverina consists largely of featureless saltbush plain.
The geology of the Riverina comprises several troughs and sedimentary basins, the western Riverina is presumed to be a continuation of the Ballarat and Bendigo geological zone while eastern sections are underlain by western portions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Riverina soils are generally sandy along the channels, with more saline grey. As the Murrumbidgee passes downstream, the water and soil become more saline, the Riverina is drained by the large Murray-Darling Basin.
Rivers and streams in the Riverina generally flow east to west, as well as the Murray, Murrumbidgee and Lachlan, other streams include Billabong Creek and the Edward River, an anabranch of the Murray.
The Bureau of Meteorology classify the Riverina in the Hot Dry Zone climatic zone, places in this zone can be very hot in the summer months while in the winter, nights can be considerably cold with cool to mild days.
Mean daily maximum temperatures in the Riverina range from Rainfall levels in the Riverina are generally low with the annual rainfall over most of the region between — millimetres, rising to between — mm on the eastern fringe.
At the census, Young had a population of 6,, Young is marketed as the Cherry Capital of Australia and every year hosts the National Cherry Festival. Young is situated on the Olympic Highway and is approximately 2 hours drive from the Canberra area and it is in a valley, with surrounding hills. The town is named after Sir John Young, the governor of NSW from to , before European settlers arrived in Young, members of the Burrowmunditory tribe, a family group of the Wiradjuri people, lived in the region.
Descendents of the Burrowmunditory clan still live in Young, james White was the first European settler in the district and established Burrangong Station in with a squatting claim of square kilometres. His story is told in the novel Brothers in Exile, gold was found in the district in Until that time the area was called Lambing Flat, a reference to the grazing of sheep that was the industry until mining.
The town was gazetted in , the goldfields produced 15, kilograms of gold sent by escort from the fields. Up to 20, miners worked the fields including about 2, Chinese miners, Lambing Flat Post Office opened on 1 March and was renamed Young in From November through to June , anti-Chinese miners attacked Chinese gold miners in the area, now known as the infamous Lambing Flat riots.
As gold became scarce, European miners began to resent what they saw as the success of the more industrious Chinese. The anti-Chinese rebels rallied in numbers of up to 3,, in Young was the first town in Australia to install electricity into the streets and homes of the township, Tamworth NSW installed electricity to the streets only the previous year.
Young has a subtropical climate. On census night,7 August , there were 6, people counted in Young, there were people who identified as being of Indigenous origin in the Census.
The median age of people in the Census was 36 years The number of people born overseas in the Census was compared with in the Census and in the Census.
Of those born overseas, the three countries of birth in the Census were, United Kingdom, New Zealand,74 and. In the Census, the three most common ancestries identified with were, Australian, people English, people and, English was stated as the only language spoken at home by people in the Census.
It was opened in February and this may be due to the varying heights of the towns of Young, Cowra and Cootamundra - 2LFs core audience. Many famous names in Australian broadcasting and television either began their career at 2LF or worked there, including Ken Sutcliffe, 2LF only became a hour radio service in the late s. It is within the Gundagai Council, at the census, Cootamundra had a population of 5, It is located on the Olympic Highway at the point where it crosses the Muttama Creek, although it is bypassed by the Hume Highway, its railway station is on the Main Southern line, part of the Melbourne-to-Sydney line.
Cootamundra is the birthplace of Sir Donald Bradman AC, an Australian cricketer universally regarded as the greatest batsman of all time. The town features the Sir Donald Bradman Birthplace Museum, a fully restored visitors site, Cootamundra is the home of the Cootamundra wattle. Every year there is a large Wattle Time Festival held at the time the wattle starts to bloom, with an art show and festivities. The earliest people to live in the area where present day Cootamundra exists are considered to be the tribe of Wiradjuri, Cootamundra was incorporated as a township on 9 August , and the first settlers bought their lots in early The towns rugby team competed in the Maher Cup.
This was restructured in June after the death of the owner. Truckloads of sand are trucked into the street for Coota Beach.
The paper started its life as The Wagga Wagga Advertiser and was founded by two wealthy local pastoralists, Auber George Jones and Thomas Darlow and it was first printed on 10 December , only 80 years after the commencement of European settlement in Australia.
The paper is older than a number of city newspapers and is one of the oldest regional newspapers in the country. When it commenced publication, Wagga Wagga was also serviced by the Wagga Wagga Express, the Wagga Wagga Advertiser originally sold for sixpence and was printed bi-weekly in the form of a four-page broadsheet, but became a tri-weekly publication in On 3 January the newspaper was renamed The Daily Advertiser, other than normal daily publication the paper has on occasion printed a special edition such as the issue of 7.
In the newspaper reduced in size from a broadsheet to a tabloid format, Rural Press bought Riverina, five weeks before Rural Press merged into Fairfax Media, The Daily Advertiser is currently a subsidiary of Fairfax. In late the stations were bought by Macquarie Regional RadioWorks who currently own, the station including its sister station was originally located in Fitzmaurice Street but was moved to its current site at Prime Television in the suburb of Kooringal on 6 June Bill Kerr, who grew up in Wagga Wagga and would go on to stardom in British radio, the West End stage, and Australian film, served as a 2WG announcer as a teenager, from The mountain is located approximately 25 kilometres south-west of Cootamundra and 4 kilometres south-east of Bethungra, atop the mountain are telecommunications towers, including television broadcast towers for all television networks covering much of the Riverina region.
The reserve is located on the hills of the Southern Tablelands. To the west of the reserve lies an undulating — metres above sea level plain which rises abruptly at Mount Ulandras summit, the reserve was dedicated in to protect stands of Cootamundra Wattle. Australian Broadcasting Corporation — The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australias national public broadcaster, owned and funded by the government.
The ABC plays a role in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Founded in as the Australian Broadcasting Company, it was made a state-owned corporation on 1 July as the Australian Broadcasting Commission.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act It also nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company which had created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations.
Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a broadcasting organisation through regular program relays. The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the ABC and the commercial sector, in The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, and in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast.
Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing and it was used only once, in Its authority had been compromised by a poorly drafted charter and further undermined by timid management, poor governance, in April , Boyer refused to accept the post of chairman until Prime Minister Curtin issued a mandate of independence which Boyer drafted itself.
The ABC commenced television broadcasting in , and followed the earlier practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABC-3 Canberra opened in , and ABD-6 started broadcasting in , although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early s. This meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually.
The black-and-white series originally ran from October 15,, to May 6,, after the series ended in , however, a modified version continued for three more seasons with 13 one-hour specials, it ran from to The show, which was the first scripted television program to be shot on 35 mm film in front of an audience, won five Emmy Awards.
I Love Lucy was the most watched show in the United States in four of its six seasons, the show is still syndicated in dozens of languages across the world and remains popular with an American audience of 40 million each year. A colorized version of its Christmas episode attracted more than 8 million viewers when CBS aired it in time in —62 years after the show premiered. A second colorized special, featuring the L. The Ricardos best friends, Fred and Ethel, are former vaudevillians, unfortunately, she has few marketable performance skills.
She does not seem to be able to carry a tune or play anything other than off-key renditions of such as Glow Worm on the saxophone.
However, to say she is completely without talent would be untrue, as on occasion, she is shown to be a good dancer, the show provided Ball ample opportunity to display her considerable skill at clowning and physical comedy. Character development was not a focus of early sitcoms, so little was offered about her life before the show.
Her family was absent, other than occasional appearances by her bird-brained mother and she was also depicted as a devoted housewife and attentive mother. Lucys husband, Ricky Ricardo, is an up-and-coming Cuban American singer and bandleader with an excitable personality and his patience is frequently tested by his wifes antics. When exasperated, he reverts to speaking rapidly in Spanish.
As with Lucy, not much is revealed about his past or family, Rickys mother appears in two episodes, in another Lucy mentions that he has five brothers.
Ricky also mentions that he had practically raised by his uncle Alberto. The story, at least insofar as related to newspaper columnist Hedda Hopper, is that the met in Havana when Lucy. The film was based on the books The Dam Busters by Paul Brickhill, a remake has been in development since , but has yet to be produced as of In the early years of the Second World War, aeronautical engineer Barnes Wallis is struggling to develop a means of attacking Germanys dams in the hope of crippling German heavy industry.
When it came into contact with the dam, it would sink before exploding, making it more destructive. Angry and frustrated, Wallis secures an interview with Sir Arthur Bomber Harris, the head of RAF Bomber Command, eventually, however, he is convinced and takes the idea to the Prime Minister, who authorises the project.
He recruits experienced crews, especially those with low-altitude flight experience, while they train for the mission, Wallis continues his development of the bomb but has problems, such as the bomb breaking apart upon hitting the water. This requires the drop altitude to be reduced to 60 feet, with only a few weeks to go, he succeeds in fixing the problems and the mission can go ahead.
Eight Lancasters and their crews are lost, but the mission succeeds. Sheriff to write a script based on a treatment by Brickhill which focused on the dams raid, further work on the script was done by Walter Mycroft. The flight sequences of the film were shot using real Avro Lancaster bombers supplied by the RAF, the aircraft, four of the final production B.
A number of Avro Lincoln bombers were used as set dressing. The Upper Derwent Valley in Derbyshire doubled as the Ruhr valley for the film, the scene where the Dutch coast is crossed was filmed between Boston, Lincolnshire and Kings Lynn, Norfolk, and other coastal scenes near Skegness.
Additional aerial footage was shot above Windermere, in the Lake District, Guy Gibson had been based at Hemswell in his final posting and the airfield had been an operational Avro Lancaster base during the war. The station headquarters building still stands on what is now an estate and is named Gibson House.
The four wartime hangars also still stand, little changed in appearance since the war. Located on Australias east coast, the metropolis surrounds the worlds largest natural harbour, residents of Sydney are known as Sydneysiders. The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30, years, the first British settlers, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural.
As at June Sydneys estimated population was 5,,, in the census,34 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has a market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing.
The first people to inhabit the now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30, years ago, the earliest British settlers called them Eora people.
Eora is the term the indigenous used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is from this place, prior to the arrival of the British there were 4, to 8, native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells.
Development has destroyed much of the citys history including that of the first inhabitants, there continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors, Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement.
Daylight saving — Daylight saving time is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months by one hour so that evening daylight lasts an hour longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use Daylight Savings Time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring, American inventor and politician Benjamin Franklin proposed a form of daylight time in New Zealander George Hudson proposed the idea of saving in The German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30,, many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the s.
The practice has both advocates and critics, DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, billing, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, and sleep patterns. Computer software often adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates, industrialized societies generally follow a clock-based schedule for daily activities that do not change throughout the course of the year. The time of day that individuals begin and end work or school, North and south of the tropics daylight lasts longer in summer and shorter in winter, with the effect becoming greater as one moves away from the tropics.
However, they will have one hour of daylight at the start of each day. Supporters have also argued that DST decreases energy consumption by reducing the need for lighting and heating, DST is also of little use for locations near the equator, because these regions see only a small variation in daylight in the course of the year.
After ancient times, equal-length civil hours eventually supplanted unequal, so civil time no longer varies by season, unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some monasteries of Mount Athos and all Jewish ceremonies. This satire proposed taxing window shutters, rationing candles, and waking the public by ringing church bells, despite common misconception, Franklin did not actually propose DST, 18th-century Europe did not even keep precise schedules.
However, this changed as rail transport and communication networks came to require a standardization of time unknown in Franklins day. An avid golfer, he also disliked cutting short his round at dusk and his solution was to advance the clock during the summer months, a proposal he published two years later. The proposal was taken up by the Liberal Member of Parliament Robert Pearce, a select committee was set up to examine the issue, but Pearces bill did not become law, and several other bills failed in the following years.
Willett lobbied for the proposal in the UK until his death in , william Sword Frost, mayor of Orillia, Ontario, introduced daylight saving time in the municipality during his tenure from to Russia and a few other countries waited until the year. Rugby league — Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
One of the two codes of football, it originated in England in as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players. Its rules gradually changed with the aim of producing a faster, in rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing teams goal line, this is called a try, and is the primary method of scoring. The opposing team attempts to stop the side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball.
In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals, after each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may also be awarded for penalties, and field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European, Australasian and Pacific Island countries, the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in , the current holders are Australia.
Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in and , renaming themselves rugby football leagues, in , the Northern Union also changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as rugby league football. In , a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union, within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In , the line-out was abolished and in professionalism introduced, in , the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. Rugby league then went on to rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales. On 5 May over , spectators watched the —54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, Bradford, England, also in the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French.
In , the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the tackle a scrum was to be formed.
This was increased to six tackles in and in the scrum was replaced by a handover, saw the first professional Sunday matches of rugby league played. Melbourne — Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9, km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley.
It has a population of 4,, as of , and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August , in what was then the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in , during the Victorian gold rush of the s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities.
After the federation of Australia in , it served as the interim seat of government until It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It was the host city of the Summer Olympics and the Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network.
The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is also home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31, to 40, years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong. The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted.
Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman then returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize.
Australian Football League — The Australian Football League is the pre-eminent professional competition in the sport of Australian rules football. The league was founded as the Victorian Football League as a breakaway from the previous Victorian Football Association, the league currently consists of 18 teams spread over five of Australias six states.
Matches have been played in all states and territories of Australia. The AFL season currently consists of a competition, followed by a round regular season. The winning team in the Grand Final is termed the premiers, the current premiers are the Western Bulldogs. In , the league expanded to ten teams, with Richmond crossing from the VFA, Port Adelaide was the most successful club of the competition winning three titles during the period along with an earlier victory.
Between the years of and , Collingwood became the first, in , the VFL hosted National Day, when all six matches were played outside of Melbourne.
Melbourne became a powerhouse during the s and early s under coach Norm Smith, the club contested seven consecutive grand finals from to , winning five premierships, including three in a row from to Television coverage began in , with telecasts of the final quarter permitted. At first, several channels competed through broadcasting different games, however, when the VFL found that television was reducing crowds, it decided that no coverage was to be allowed for In , replays were introduced although direct telecasts were rarely permitted in Melbourne, in , the VFL planned the first purpose built mega-stadium, VFL Park, to give it some independence from the Melbourne Cricket Club, which managed the Melbourne Cricket Ground.
VFL Park was planned to hold , spectators, which would have made it one of the largest stadiums in the world — although it would ultimately be built with a capacity of 78, Land for the stadium was purchased at Mulgrave, then farmland, the VFL Premiership Trophy was first awarded in addition to a pennant flag in , essentially the same trophy design has been in use since. The station was the tenth to begin transmission in regional Australia, CTC has an affiliation agreement to show content from the Nine Network.
The first chairman of the newly formed company was Arthur Shakespeare, alongside four other applicants, CTL submitted their licence application to the Australian Broadcasting Control Board in April The callsign for the station was to be CTC and the new service was to transmit on VHF channel 7, prior to the acquisition of the licence, CTL needed to find suitable sites for both a studio and a transmitter. Initially, Mount Ainslie was considered as a transmitter site.
It was turned down, however, because it was already under the control of the Department of Civil Aviation, other sites considered included Mounts Gray, Bowning, Ginini and Bulls Head. Ultimately, the chosen for both the transmitter and the studio was Black Mountain, approximately 5 km west of the city centre at m above sea level.
Extensive tests from the site proved that it was the location for the transmitter. The ABC also decided to place their transmitter atop Black Mountain — both would be perched atop guyed masts with each rising to metres and metres, aBCs studio would be located in Canberra city proper. In order to access the transmitters and studio, a road needed to be built up to the summit — construction commenced in July , CTL were granted the lease to the Black Mountain site on 26 September The transmitter was custom-designed by Co-El of Italy, and the mast EPT Limited in Sydney, by April , both the studio and transmitter was completed and the first test patterns were transmitted.
Shakespeare, Sir Patrick McGovern and station manager George Barlin also assisted with the opening proceedings, an introduction to CTCs on-screen personalities was followed by a news summary. Viewers were then treated to a film of the Queens Birthday Procession from the barracks at Duntroon. Super Show hosted by Margaret Fonteyn, the detective series Michael Shayne made its premiere on CTC then a kinescope of the opening ceremony was screened. The first nights programming concluded with an epilogue and a preview of the following days programmes before ending transmission at 10, CTC was a pioneer of colour television, commissioning the first purpose-built colour production studio and film laboratory in Australia.
The stations are owned and operated by Southern Cross Nine, GLV in Traralgon was the first regional television station to launch in Australia, on 9 December , originally covering the Gippsland and Latrobe Valley areas. It was also the first station to use entirely Australian-made broadcasting equipment from Amalgamated Wireless Australasia, the original transmission equipment consisted of a 10 kW and 2 kW transmitter which was based on the RCA product and adapted to V50 Hz by AWA.
GLV pioneered the use of live, off-air relays of television programs from stations in Melbourne, since the station had no video recording equipment, engineers were forced to rely on picking up the original signal at the transmitter site to relay back to the studio. An affiliation was formed between the two stations and STV-8 Mildura in the s, in , the three stations merged as the TV8 network, sharing a common logo and programming schedule.
By September , the network had changed its name and logo to SCN and this latest change coincided with the axing of the stations local news service, replaced by ATVs Ten News at 5. In , GLV-8 moved again to UHF channel 37, in order to allow another Melbourne station, the two stations playout and management operations were moved from Bendigo to Canberra in September The Southern Cross Ten branding was retired and replaced by generic Nine branding, from their inception, regional stations GLV and BCV provided local news bulletins within their respective markets.
It is kilometres west of the capital, Sydney. Orange had an urban population of 40, as of June making the city a significant regional centre. With a peak elevation of 1, metres it gives commanding views of the district, Orange is the birthplace of poets Banjo Paterson and Kenneth Slessor, although Paterson lived in Orange for only a short time as an infant. Stone, book publisher and passionate supporter of Australian literature, was born in Orange.
In the late s, the surveyor J. Richards worked on a survey of the Macquarie River below Bathurst, on a plan dated , he indicated a village reserve, in the parish of Orange. Initial occupation by British graziers began in late , and tiny settlements eventually turned into larger towns as properties came into connection with the road.
In , the surveyor Davidson was sent to check on encroachments onto the land reserved for a village and his choices were Fredericks Valley, Pretty Plains, or Blackmans Swamp. Blackmans Swamp was chosen, and it was proclaimed a village, at nearby Ophir, a significant gold find in Australia was made in , resulting in a sporadic population movement which is known as the Australian gold rush. Additional gold finds in nearby areas led to the establishment of Orange as a trading centre for the gold.
The growth of Orange continued as the conditions were well suited for agriculture, the railway from Sydney reached Orange in In , years after it was first being established as a village, Orange was proclaimed as a minor city, in recent years, a large number of vineyards have been planted in the area for rapidly expanding wine production.
The growth of wine industry, coupled with the further development of Orange as a gourmet food capital, has ensured Oranges status as a prominent tourism destination. Other large industries include, Cadia gold mine is an open cut gold. The mine has been developed throughout the s and is an employer in the region with an expected lifespan of several decades. Cadia is the second largest open-cut mine in Australia, following the Super Pit at Kalgoorlie, large mineral deposits are also being uncovered from the more recently developed Ridgeway underground mine which is adjacent to the Cadia Mine.
Very high frequency — Very high frequency is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves from 30 MHz to MHz, with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meters. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted high frequency, and the higher frequencies are known as ultra high frequency. Air traffic control communications and air navigation systems work at distances of kilometres or more to aircraft at cruising altitude, some older DVB-T receivers included channels E2 to E4 but newer ones only go down to channel E5.
VHF propagation characteristics are suited for terrestrial communication, with a range generally somewhat farther than line-of-sight from the transmitter. VHF waves are restricted to the radio horizon less than miles. VHF is less affected by noise and interference from electrical equipment than lower frequencies.
Unlike high frequencies, the ionosphere does not usually reflect VHF waves, the distance to the radio horizon is slightly extended over the geometric line of sight to the horizon, as radio waves are weakly bent back toward the Earth by the atmosphere. These approximations are only valid for antennas at heights that are compared to the radius of the Earth.
They may not necessarily be accurate in mountainous areas, since the landscape may not be transparent enough for radio waves, in engineered communications systems, more complex calculations are required to assess the probable coverage area of a proposed transmitter station. The accuracy of calculations for digital TV signals is being debated. Portable radios usually use whips or rubber ducky antennas, while base stations usually use larger fiberglass whips or collinear arrays of vertical dipoles, for directional antennas, the Yagi antenna is the most widely used as a high gain or beam antenna.
For television reception, the Yagi is used, as well as the log periodic antenna due to its wider bandwidth, helical and turnstile antennas are used for satellite communication since they employ circular polarization. For even higher gain, multiple Yagis or helicals can be mounted together to make array antennas, vertical collinear arrays of dipoles can be used to make high gain omnidirectional antennas, in which more of the antennas power is radiated in horizontal directions.
Television and FM broadcasting stations use arrays of specialized dipole antennas such as batwing antennas. Certain subparts of the VHF band have the same use around the world, some national uses are detailed below. Other capital cities and regional areas used a combination of these, the initial commercial services in Hobart and Darwin were respectively allocated channels 6 and 8 rather than 7 or 9.
By the early s it became apparent that the 10 VHF channels were insufficient to support the growth of television services and this was rectified by the addition of three additional frequencies—channels 0, 5A and FM broadcasting — FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology.
Invented in by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, it is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio, FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts.
This band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many countries, in those countries the In Japan, the band 76—95 MHz is used, the frequency of an FM broadcast station is usually an exact multiple of kHz. In the UK odd or even are used, in Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in countries, including 1,10,30,74, Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system and this can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver.
Reducing the high frequencies in the receiver also reduces the high-frequency noise. These processes of boosting and then reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, the amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. This applies to both mono and stereo transmissions, for stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing. They cannot be pre-emphasized as much because it would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier, systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis, e.
Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing and these original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Daniel Gibson presenter — Daniel Gibson is an Australian television presenter and is seen weeknightly across the Prime7 Television Network as Newsreader and weatherman in the role of Network Presenter.
Analog television — Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio. In an analog television broadcast, the brightness, colors and sound are represented by variations of either the amplitude.
Analog signals vary over a range of possible values which means that electronic noise. So with analog, a weak signal becomes snowy and subject to interference. In contrast, a moderately weak signal and a very strong digital signal transmit equal picture quality.
Analog television may be wireless or can be distributed over a network using cable converters. All broadcast television systems preceding digital transmission of digital television used analog signals, analog television around the world has been in the process of shutting down since the late s.
The earliest systems were mechanical systems which used spinning disks with patterns of holes punched into the disc to scan an image. A similar disk reconstructed the image at the receiver, synchronization of the receiver disc rotation was handled through sync pulses broadcast with the image information. However these mechanical systems were slow, the images were dim and flickered severely, camera systems used similar spinning discs and required intensely bright illumination of the subject for the light detector to work.
Analog television did not really begin as an industry until the development of the cathode-ray tube, the electron beam could be swept across the screen much faster than any mechanical disc system, allowing for more closely spaced scan lines and much higher image resolution.
Also far less maintenance was required of an all-electronic system compared to a spinning disc system, all-electronic systems became popular with households after the Second World War.
These systems determine the number of lines, channel width, vision bandwidth, vision-sound separation, each frame of a television image is composed of lines drawn on the screen. The lines are of varying brightness, the set of lines is drawn quickly enough that the human eye perceives it as one image. The next sequential frame is displayed, allowing the depiction of motion, the analog television signal contains timing and synchronization information, so that the receiver can reconstruct a two-dimensional moving image from a one-dimensional time-varying signal.
The first commercial systems were black-and-white, the beginning of color television was in the s. A practical television system needs to take luminance, chrominance, synchronization, and audio signals, the transmission system must include a means of television channel selection. The city is approximately kilometres west-north-west of the capital, Melbourne.
It is the third largest population for a city in Australia. Ballarat is arguably the most significant Victorian era gold rush boomtown in Australia, just months after Victoria was granted separation from the state of New South Wales, the Victorian gold rush transformed Ballarat from a small sheep station to a major settlement.
Gold was discovered at Poverty Point on 18 August , within months, migrants from across the world had rushed to the district in search of gold. Unlike many other boom towns, the Ballarat fields experienced sustained high gold yields for many decades. The Eureka Rebellion began in Ballarat, and the armed rebellion in Australian history. In response to the event the first male suffrage in Australia was instituted, the gold rush and boom gave birth to many other significant cultural legacies.
It has endured as a regional centre hosting the rowing and kayaking events from the Summer Olympics. It is the capital of the Central Highlands and the largest city in the Goldfields region of Victoria. Ballarat is known for its history, culture and its well-preserved Victorian era heritage, after a narrow popular vote the city merged with the town of Ballarat East in , ending a long standing rivalry.
Prior to the European settlement of Australia, the Ballarat region was populated by the Wathaurong people, the Boro gundidj tribes territory was based along the Yarrowee River. Outsiders originally knew of the settlement as Yuilles Station and Yuilles Swamp, Archibald Yuille named the area Ballaarat Some claim the name is derived from a local Wathaurong Aboriginal word for the area, balla arat.
The meaning of word is not certain, however, several translations have been made. In some dialects, balla means bent elbow, which is translated to mean reclining or resting, another claim is that the name derives from Yuilles native Gaelic Baile Ararat, alluding to the resting place of Noahs ark. The present spelling was adopted by the City of Ballarat in Ultra high frequency — Ultra high frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between MHz and 3 GHz, also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimetre.
Radio waves in the UHF band travel almost entirely by propagation and ground reflection, there is very little reflection from the ionosphere. They are blocked by hills and cannot travel far beyond the horizon, atmospheric moisture reduces, or attenuates, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, and the attenuation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are generally more degraded by moisture than lower bands, occasionally when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.
The length of an antenna is related to the length of the radio waves used, the UHF antenna is stubby and short, at UHF frequencies a quarter-wave monopole, the most common omnidirectional antenna is between 2. UHF is widely used in telephones, cell phones, walkie-talkies and other two-way radio systems from short range up to the visual horizon.
Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are usually short whips, higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of dipoles and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas.
The short wavelengths also allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small, high gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are usually Yagi, log periodic, corner reflectors, or reflective array antennas.
At the top end of the band slot antennas and parabolic dishes become practical, for television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are mostly modifications of the slot antenna or helical antenna are used, the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, and panel antennas. UHF television broadcasting fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas, today, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to land mobile, trunked radio and mobile telephone use.
UHF channels are used for digital television. UHF spectrum is used worldwide for mobile radio systems for commercial, industrial, public safety.
Kilowatt — The watt is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units defined as 1 joule per second and can be used to quantify the rate of energy transfer. Mass times acceleration due to gravity times height divided by the time it takes to lift the object to the given height gives the rate of doing work or power.
A laborer over the course of an 8-hour day can sustain an output of about 75 watts, higher power levels can be achieved for short intervals. The watt is named after the Scottish scientist James Watt for his contributions to the development of the steam engine, in the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures adopted it for the measurement of power into the International System of Units. Limit to issues of this title. Prev issue Next issue Browse issues.
Prev page Next page Browse pages. Prev article Next article Browse articles. Hide article pages Show article pages. Article text Fix this text. View all articles on this page Previous article Next article. Remove extra words Cancel. Paragraphs Paragraph operations are made directly in the full article text panel located to the left.
Adjust the order paragraphs Add new blank paragraphs Duplicate an existing paragraph Remove a paragraph Cancel. Zones Zone operations are made directly in the full article text panel located to the left. Metadata Heading Subheadings Authors Abstract WE have no satisfactory evidence of the appearance of the oidium or the vine disease on the Upper Murray. Something resembling it has been discovered in one or two vineyards Cancel. Loading article contents, please wait On this Page 2 Scroll to next page.
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|CRAIGSLIST ENCOUNTER LOCAL PRIVATE ESCORTS WESTERN AUSTRALIA||InWestpac Bank bought Ten out of receivership and later sold the network to a consortium headed by Canadian group CanWest. After the war, Wagga Wagga was proclaimed as a city inin the city was amalgamated with the neighbouring Kyeamba and Mitchell Shires to form the City of Wagga Wagga local government area. Of those born overseas, the three countries of birth in the Census were, United Kingdom, New Zealand,74. The architect William Charles Vahland left an important mark on Bendigo during this period and he is credited with the popular cottage design with verandahs decorated in brothels near airport girls looking for sex free lace, a style that was soon adopted right across the state of Victoria. Important powers that are measured in nanowatts are also used in reference to radio. As with Lucy, not much is revealed about his past or family, Rickys mother appears in two episodes, in another Lucy mentions that he has five brothers. Colonel Whit- more has been to Papatuka—the local jour- nals express their dislike of .|
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|Backpacker escorts vivian black escort Brisbane||Vivian Vance and Lucille Ball. Inthere was a massive protest over the cost of the fee for prospectors, though it passed off peacefully, thanks to good diplomacy by police. Orange had an urban population of 40, as of June making the city a significant regional centre. However, to say she is completely without talent would be untrue, as on occasion, she is shown to be a good dancer, the show provided Ball ample opportunity to display her considerable skill at clowning and physical comedy. The growth of Orange continued as the conditions were well suited for agriculture, the railway from Sydney reached Orange in Following its movement into the industry, the business changed its name to Altarama Ltd free sex near me perky boobs|